Intro to Web Design - Vocabulary

  • algorithms:  sequences of instructions that transform data or generate useful conclusions
  • <a> tag : Allows putting links on a web page. It uses the href attribute to specify what the link should point to.

  • binary - a base 2 number system - this means the only digits available are 0 and 1 - all computer programs are executed in binary form
  • bit - binary digit - the smallest unit of information on a computer, represented as either a 0 or a 1
  • byte - a byte is equal to 8 bits - computer data storage is measured in bytes
    • KB (kilo) = approximately 1,000 bytes (thousands)
    • MB (mega) = approximately 1,000,000 bytes (millions)
    • GB (giga) = approximately 1,000,000,000 bytes (billions)
    • TB (tera) - approximately 1,000,000,000,000 bytes (trillions)
  • body section- the text of the actual page itself
  • browser - A program on your computer that sends requests for webpages and displays them.

  • citizen science (or crowdsourcing) - individuals or organizations use contributions from Internet users to obtain needed services or ideas
  • class is an attribute we can add to HTML tags in order to style a specific group of elements
  • compress: to decrease the number of bits used to represent a piece of information
    • lossless compression - data (number of bits) is compressed in a way that the preserves all data and allows full recovery - gif, wav and png files use this method
    • lossy compression - some data (bits) gets thrown away meaning you cannot recreate the original file later - this is used in jpg and mp3 files
  • computer: a device that accepts input, stores data, and processes it in some way to produce an output
  • css: cascading style sheets. The language for designing web pages and adding style

 

  • debugging - the trial and error process of testing out code to find errors
  • digital footprint - the trail, traces or "footprints" that people leave online. This is information transmitted online, such as forum registration, e-mails and attachments, uploading videos or digital images and any other form of transmission of information — all of which leaves traces of personal information about yourself available to others online
  • document - each webpage is really just plain text written up in a document, to let the browser know it is a webpage we use the extension of .html or .htm
  • Domain Name System (DNS): Used to translate domain names into IP addresses.

 

  • file extension - a group of letters occurring after a period in a file name, indicating the format of the file, this lets the computer know which programs to use to open it
  • ftp - file transfer protocol - the way that files can be transferred from a computer to the internet (often used in website development)

 

  • gif - Graphics Interchange Format - an image file with limited color (256) - best for images such as clipart - can be used for animations

 

  • head section - the brain of the page - information in here is used to help create the page (titles, keywords, etc)
  • hex color codes - a 6 digit combination of letters and numbers represents values of red, green and blue - often seen when adding color to web pages in html
  • hosting service - a company that lets your website "live" on a computer (server) so it can be accessed via the web
  • html: Hypertext Markup Language. HTML is the “language of the web.” Rather than a programming language, HTML is a markup language.
  • hypertext - a piece of text that works as a link

 

  • <img> tag: Allows adding an image to a web page. It is self-closing. The attributes of a image tags include src, which specifies where to get the image from (the url for an image ), and width and height attributes, which specify the size of the image in pixels.
  • id is an attribute we can add to an HTML tag to style that specific element
  • internet - A philosophy of making information and knowledge open and accessible to ALL. A network of networks built on open, agreed upon protocols.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) - the way devices communicate with each other
  • Internet Protocol (IP) addresses: a unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer/device using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.
    - IPV4 is a 32-bit address and allows for up to 4.3 billion addresses (packets of 4)
    - newer IPV6 is 128-bit address and allows for up to 3.4×1038 =  (340 undecillion addresses) (packets of 16)

 

  • jpeg or jpg: Joint Photographic Experts Group - an image file with high quality color and resolution - often used for photographs
  • metadata - data about data - this is information included in the Head section that provides information about the page vs the actual text displayed on the page
  • markup Language - used to format that layout for a document (web page)

 

  • <ol> tag: Defines an ordered list in HTML (like 1. 2. 3., or A. B. C.)
  • packets - Packets are the units of data that are sent over the network.
  • paragraph tag - indicates the text is a new paragraph (will usually add a line of space) <p></p>
  • png - Portable Network Graphic - intended as a replacement for the GIF file type - does not support animations but is lossless
  • pixel: PIX (picture) Element - the smallest unit on a display screen or in a digital image
  • problem solving & design process - define, prepare, try, reflect (steps that are repeated often - iterative (looping))
  • protocol - A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between device, or the correct conduct and procedures in a social situation

 

  • rgb (red, green, and blue): refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display. Red, green, and blue can be combined in various proportions to obtain any color in the visible spectrum.
  • routing - The process of sending data between two computers on the internet. The data is sent through routers that determine the route.

 

  • scalability - for the web, it means more servers and routers can be added as needed when there is a lot of increase in use - a system that can adapt and grow easily when it grows
  • selector - defines which HTML elements a CSS rule applies to
  • seo - Search Engine Optimization - a set of rules that can be followed by website owners to improve their websites for search engine rankings
  • style attribute - allows adding several different types of styles to HTML elements

 

  • tables: display information in a grid, uses <table>, <th> <tr> and <td> tags
  • tags (or elements) are specific pieces of code that mean something to the browser - these are always surrounded by a pair of brackets <> - this is an example of a head tag: <head>-
    A backslash is added to indicate the end of a tag: </html>
  • title tag - included within the HEAD section - it is where the browser will find the text title to diplay for the page
  • top level domain (TLD) - the last segment of the domain name - the letters immediately following the final dot in an Internet address (.org, .com. net., .au, etc)

 

  • <ul> tag: Defines an unordered list in HTML.
  • web design: Designing web page to make it appealing and easy to use for viewers
  • web development: Writing the HTML, CSS, and other code to actually generate a web page
  • web page: A document that can be viewed by a web browser, usually written in HTML
  • web site: A collection of related webpages, usually registered under the same domain name
  • WYSISWYG (what you see is what you get) - a visually based web page editor, like Wix, Wordpress, or Blogger

 

  • url (uniform resource locator) - Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. You are locating a resource that exists somewhere on the internet.